Exercise a high degree of caution in Jamaica because of high levels of serious crime. Pay close attention to your personal security at all times. Monitor the media and other sources of information about possible new security risks.
- The Jamaican Government has put in place a number of measures to enhance security. There are states of emergency in the parishes of Clarendon, Hanover, St Andrew, St Catherine, St James and Westmoreland. Special zones have been set up for the military to support police in Denham Town in Kingston and Mount Salem in Montego Bay. Anticipate road closures and travel delays. Local curfews may occur with little or no notice. Be alert in these areas, particularly if travelling at night. Monitor local media and follow instructions issued by local authorities. See
Safety and security
- Violence can erupt in Kingston with little or no warning. There are high levels of lawlessness and gang violence, particularly at night. Be alert. Comply with instructions from security authorities. See
Safety and security
- Avoid demonstrations and large public gatherings - they can turn violent, possibly involving firearms. See
Safety and security
- Roads can be closed and curfews can be imposed at short notice. Monitor local media for updates. Plan accordingly. See
- The hurricane season is June to November when landslides, mudslides and flooding may occur. See
- Australia has a Consulate in Kingston headed by an Honorary Consul, which provides limited consular assistance and conducts passport interviews. The
Australian High Commission in Trinidad and Tobago provides consular assistance to Australians in Jamaica. See
Where to get help
Entry and exit
Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Australian Government cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination's entry or exit requirements.
You won't need a visa to enter Jamaica if your visit is:
- for tourism and you'll stay for less than six months, or
- for business and you'll stay for less than thirty days.
In other circumstances, you'll need a visa.
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) can change at short notice. Contact an
Embassy or Consulate of Jamaica for up-to-date information. Jamaica doesn't have a High Commission, Embassy or Consulate in Australia. Its nearest mission is the
Embassy of Jamaica in Tokyo.
If you're travelling to Jamaica through the United States, or if you are transiting in Honolulu or another US point of entry, you must meet US entry/transit requirements. Check your visa requirements with a
US Embassy or Consulate well in advance of your travel. More information:
United States of America
Arrival and departure taxes are usually included in your airfare, but this isn’t always the case for charter flights. Check with your carrier or travel provider if the tax has been charged.
You'll need a valid Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate if you're arriving from, or transiting through, a country or area where yellow fever is endemic. Infants under one year of age are exempt. More information:
Yellow fever risk and certification requirements (by country, WHO)
Check the expiry date of your Australian passport before you travel. Some countries won’t let you enter unless your passport is valid for six months from when you plan to leave that country.
Your passport is a valuable document and attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. Always keep it in a safe place.
Be aware of attempts to get your passport by deception. If you're forced to hand over your passport, contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate for advice.
If your passport is lost or stolen, you must notify the Australian Government as soon as possible.
The local currency is the Jamaican dollar (JAD). Declare all currency on arrival. Only exchange foreign currency for JAD at commercial banks and exchange bureaux. International credit cards can be used in tourist facilities in major centres. ATMs are not widely available outside Kingston and Montego Bay. Use only ATMs in secure locations such as hotels as criminals target ATMs in less secured areas – see
Safety and security.
Contact your bank to ensure that your cards will work in Jamaica.
Safety and security
Violent crime, including armed robbery and murder is a serious problem in Jamaica, particularly in Kingston, Spanish Town and Montego Bay. It is often gang-related. Perpetrators are often armed.
Areas particularly prone to violent crime include:
- in Kingston – Tivoli Gardens, Whitfield Town, Payne Land, West Kingston, Grant's Pen, August Town, Denham Town, Hannah Town, Arnett Gardens, Olympic Gardens, Harbour View, Central Village, Spanish Town, Mountain View, Trench Town, Cassava Piece, Canterbury, Norwood and Rose Heights
- in Montego Bay – St Clavers Avenue and Hart Street, Flankers, Canterbury, Norwood, Rose Heights and Mount Salem
- Mountain View Avenue, between Kingston and Norman Manley International Airport.
Gang violence along Mountain View Avenue has led to motorists being shot in the crossfire. The risk of robbery when travelling to and from Norman Manley International Airport increases at night.
Sexual assault, robbery and other crimes have occurred after travellers accepted 'spiked' food or drink, including in tourist resorts. There have been reports of sexual assaults at tourist resorts carried out by resort staff and other tourists. Although most hotels and resorts are well guarded, always ensure that your hotel room doors and windows are secure. Use the hotel safe to secure your valuables. There have been a number of incidents in large resorts involving theft from hotel room safes by hotel staff. Don’t leave valuables in plain view, even while you are in your hotel room.
Travellers have been robbed and assaulted after accepting rides from strangers or using unofficial taxis.
Petty crime, including pickpocketing and bag snatching occurs, particularly in Old Kingston. Valuables such as jewellery, handbags, phones and cameras can make you a target for criminals. Public transport is often overcrowded and a venue of crime.
You could also encounter credit card and ATM fraud.
- Be alert to your surroundings at all times.
- Make sure there is a high level of security at your accommodation, particularly in villa-style accommodation.
- Carry only what you need. Leave other valuables, including your passport, in a secure location.
- Don't tempt thieves – avoid wearing or displaying expensive watches, jewellery, cameras, phones or tablets/laptops.
- Keep vehicle windows closed, doors locked and valuables out of sight at all times, including when moving.
- Don't use ATMs on the street. Use ATMs in daylight hours in hotels, shopping centres or other controlled areas.
- Don't walk alone.
- Avoid visiting beaches at night.
- Avoid using Mountain View Avenue when travelling to and from Norman Manley International Airport.
- Be wary of approaches from overly 'friendly' strangers.
- Don't leave your food or drink unattended.
- Never accept food, drink, gum or cigarettes from strangers or new acquaintances.
- Keep your credit card in sight when making purchases, including at supermarkets.
- If you're attacked or robbed, don't resist. Criminals are often armed and you could be seriously injured or killed.
States of emergency
The Jamaican Government has put in place a number of measures to enhance security. There are states of emergency in the parishes of:
- St Andrew
- St Catherine
- St James
During this time, security forces have the power to search members of the public, shorten business opening hours, restrict access to certain areas and detain people without a warrant.
There are also special zones for the military to support police in responding to increased violence and shooting incidents in Denham Town in Kingston and Mount Salem in Montego Bay.
- Anticipate road closures and travel delays.
- Further activity, including local curfews could occur with little or no notice.
- Be alert in these areas, particularly if travelling at night.
Civil unrest and political tension
Demonstrations and other public gatherings can turn violent with little or no warning, particularly in Kingston. Firearms may be used.
Impromptu demonstrations, often with roadblocks, can occur along the roads leading to Norman Manley International Airport.
Authorities can close roads and impose curfews at short notice.
- Avoid all large gatherings, protests and demonstrations.
- Monitor the media for reports of road closures, curfews and planned or possible unrest. Avoid affected areas.
- Be ready to adjust your travel plans in response to any road closures and/or curfews.
- Follow instructions from local authorities.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. More information:
Terrorist threat worldwide
Tours and adventure activities
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators aren't always met, especially for adventure activities such as diving and yachting. Recommended safety precautions and maintenance standards may not be followed. Safety equipment such as lifejackets and seatbelts may not be provided.
If you plan to participate in adventure activities:
- check if the activity is covered by your insurance policy
- check operators' credentials and safety equipment before booking
- use reputable, registered tour operators
- ask about or insist on minimal safety requirements
- use available safety equipment, even if others don't
- if appropriate safety equipment is not available, use another provider.
You're twice as likely to be killed in a motor vehicle accident in Jamaica than in Australia. Driving hazards include poorly maintained roads, speeding and the presence of pedestrians and vendors on roads. Night-time driving is especially dangerous.
Weather conditions can make some roads impassable. Authorities can close roads at short notice, including for security reasons. See
Safety and security.
Breakdown assistance is limited in urban areas and virtually unavailable in rural areas.
By law, seat belts must be worn in cars and taxis.
Check you have adequate insurance cover before driving.
- Familiarise yourself with local traffic laws and practices before driving.
- Always use your seatbelt.
- Avoid driving at night, especially outside of Kingston, Ocho Rios, Montego Bay, and Negril.
- When driving between Norman Manley International Airport and Kingston, take the South Camp Road (also known as the Humming Bird Route). Avoid Mountain View Avenue. See Safety and security.
- Get up-to-date advice on road closures and curfews that could affect your movements before you travel by road. See
Safety and security.
You can drive in Jamaica with a valid Australian driver's licence and an International Driving Permit (IDP). You must obtain your IDP before departing Australia.
Wear a helmet on mopeds, motor scooters and motorcycles. Check if your travel insurance policy covers you when using a motorcycle, quad bike or similar vehicle. Your policy may not cover you for accidents that occur while using these vehicles.
Use only registered taxis and limousines, preferably those arranged through your hotel. Travellers using unofficial taxis have been robbed and assaulted. Use taxis authorised by the Jamaican United Travellers' Association (JUTA). You can order JUTA taxis at hotels or via a uniformed attendant at the airport. Since taxis aren’t metered, agree on the fare in advance.
Public transport is not safe due to high levels of crime and overcrowding. Knutsford Express offers reliable bus transportation between major towns.
Cruise liners and stopover in Jamaica. More information:
Travelling by boat
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See the
Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Jamaica. More information: Air travel
You're subject to local laws and penalties, including those that appear harsh by Australian standards. Research local laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
If you're arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our
Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
Penalties for drug offences are severe. Possession of illegal drugs, including marijuana, can lead to imprisonment. Travellers are thoroughly screened for drugs on departure from Jamaica.
Serious crimes, such as murder, can attract the death penalty.
Activities that are illegal in Jamaica include:
- homosexuality - more information:
- public nudity
- use of indecent language
- buying, selling or wearing camouflage style clothing
- failing to wear an appropriate helmet while riding on a moped, motor scooter or motorcycle
- failing to wear a seat belts while driving or riding in a car or taxi.
Some Australian criminal laws apply overseas. If you commit these offences, you may be prosecuted in Australia. Laws include those relating to:
- bribery of foreign public officials
- child pornography
- child sex tourism
- female genital mutilation
- forced marriage
- money laundering
Staying within the law
Homosexuality is not widely accepted. Verbal and physical aggression towards homosexuals occurs. More information:
Take out comprehensive travel insurance before you depart to cover overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation. Make sure your policy includes adequate coverage for any pre-existing conditions.
Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for your medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs. This can be very expensive and cost you many thousands of dollars upfront.
- what circumstances and activities are and are not covered under your policy
- that you are covered for the whole time you will be away.
Physical and mental health
Consider your physical and mental health before travelling, especially if you have an existing medical condition.
- At least eight weeks before you depart, see your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and implications for your health.
- Get vaccinated before you travel.
Not all medications available over the counter or by prescription in Australia are available in other countries. Some may be considered illegal or a controlled substance, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor.
Before you leave Australia, check if your medication is legal in each country you're travelling to and find out if any quantity restrictions or certification requirements apply. Consult your doctor about alternatives well in advance of travel.
Take legal prescription medicine with you so you remain in good health. Carry copies of your prescription and a dated letter from your doctor stating what the medicine is, how much you'll take and that it's for personal use only.
There is limited transmission of
Zika virus in Jamaica. The Australian Department of Health advises pregnant women to discuss any travel plans with their doctor and consider deferring non-essential travel to Zika virus-affected areas.
Outbreaks of the mosquito-borne illness
dengue fever are common during the rainy season (June to December). Cases of
chikungunya virus have also been confirmed.
Protect yourself against insect-borne diseases:
- ensure your accommodation is insect proof, including with treated mosquito nets
- avoid insect bites, including by using insect repellent and wearing long, loose-fitting, light-coloured clothing
- seek medical advice if you have a fever, muscle pain, rash or severe headache.
HIV/AIDS is prevalent. Exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Other infectious diseases
Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases (including hepatitis, leptospirosis and tuberculosis) are prevalent. More serious outbreaks occur from time-to-time.
- Practise good hygiene, including frequent handwashing.
- Boil drinking water or drink bottled water with intact seals.
- Avoid ice cubes.
- Avoid raw and undercooked food.
- Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
The standard of medical facilities in tourist areas and in Kingston is reasonable. In remote areas, medical care is limited. Emergency medical services are located only in Kingston and Montego Bay.
Costs for treatment can be very high. Hospitals and private medical facilities require patients to pay up front or take a credit card impression as a guarantee of payment before providing medical care. In public hospitals, you may only need to provide a deposit towards the cost of treatment, provided you're covered by health insurance.
There's only one hyperbaric chamber in Jamaica. It's located in Discovery Bay Marine Lab near Ocho Rios.
If you become seriously ill or injured, you may need to be evacuated to Miami or another destination with appropriate facilities. Medical evacuation can be very expensive.
Jamaica can experience hurricanes, severe storms, earthquakes and tsunamis.
If a natural disaster occurs:
If you're travelling to Jamaica during hurricane season or following a natural disaster, monitor weather reports and contact your tour operator to check whether tourist services at your planned destination have been affected. Contact your airline for the latest flight information.
Hurricane season is June to November when landslides, mudslides, flooding and disruptions to essential services can occur, particularly in mountainous areas. The direction and strength of hurricanes can change with little warning.
During hurricane season, contact your tour operator to check whether tourist services at your planned destination have been affected.
The direction and strength of hurricanes can change with little warning. For information on hurricane or severe weather see
U.S. National Hurricane Center, the
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency and the
Global Disaster Alert and Co-ordination System.
In the event of an approaching hurricane, identify your local shelter. Flights in and out of affected areas could be delayed or suspended. Available flights may fill quickly. Contact your airline for the latest flight information. The hurricane could also affect access to sea ports in the region. In some areas, adequate shelter from a severe hurricane may not be available to all. Familiarise yourself with your hotel or cruise ship evacuation plans. Carry your travel documents (i.e. passport, photo IDs, etc.) or secure them in a safe, waterproof location. Contact friends and family in Australia with updates about your welfare and whereabouts.
Jamaica is located in an active seismic zone and can experience earthquakes. Familiarise yourself with earthquake safety measures for each place you stay and visit. More information:
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, including the Caribbean.
To receive tsunami alerts, register with the
Global Disaster Alert and Co-ordination System.
Move immediately to high ground if advised by local or regional authorities or if you experience any of the following:
- feel a strong earthquake that makes it hard to stand up, or a weak rolling earthquake that lasts a minute or more
- see a sudden rise or fall in sea level
- hear loud and unusual noises from the sea
Don't wait for official warnings. Once on high ground, monitor local media.
Where to get help
Depending on what you need, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24-hour emergency number.
Emergency phone numbers
- Police: 119
- Fire services: 119
- Ambulance: 119
Always get a police report when reporting a crime.
Tourism products and services
To complain about tourism services, contact the service provider directly.
Consular Services Charter for what the Australian Government can and can't do to assist Australians overseas.
Australia has a Consulate in Kingston headed by an Honorary Consul which provides limited consular services and conducts passport interviews. You can get full consular assistance from the Australian High Commission in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
Australian Consulate, Kingston
80-82 Second Street, Port Bustamante
Kingston 13, Jamaica.
Telephone: (1 876) 361 1332
Australian High Commission, Port of Spain
18 Herbert Street, St Clair
Port of Spain
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Telephone: (1 868) 822 5450
Fax: (1 868) 822 5490
Australia in the Caribbean
High Commission website for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.
If you're unable to contact the Embassy in a consular emergency, contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305, or 1300 555 135 within Australia.