The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) centred in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to more than 11,000 deaths. This is the most serious outbreak of EVD in recorded history. On 9 May 2015, the World Health Organization declared that the Ebola outbreak in Liberia was over and that Liberia is now Ebola-free.
We strongly recommend that Australians residing or travelling in Africa, as well as Australian businesses with commercial interests in the region, subscribe to this bulletin and relevant travel advisory updates to receive an email notification each time these are updated.
We currently advise Australians to reconsider their need to travel to Guinea and Sierra Leone. We have lowered the level of the advice for Liberia following WHO’s declaration that the country is now Ebola-free. If you choose to travel to, or remain in these countries, we strongly recommend that you register your travel and contact details with us, so that we can contact you or your family in an emergency.
About Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)
The Zaire strain of the Ebola virus causes EVD in humans, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. The fatality rate in the current outbreak, however, is approximately 60% according to the World Health Organization. The symptoms of EVD are severe and can include high fever, muscle pain and weakness, headache and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhoea and in some cases, internal and external bleeding. There is currently no vaccine to prevent Ebola and no proven safe and effective specific treatment for EVD, however prompt and high-quality supportive care can be life-saving. A number of providers are currently working on vaccines for EVD, with some advancing to in-country clinical trials, however their effectiveness is yet to be determined.
The virus is introduced into the human population through direct contact with the blood or body fluids of infected animals (often through the hunting or preparation of “bushmeat”). Human to human transmission then occurs through direct contact to broken skin or mucous membranes with the body fluids of an infected person, including blood, faeces and sweat. Transmission can also occur through direct contact with the body or body fluids of a deceased EVD patient.
In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the outbreak of EVD in west Africa was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The WHO released an Ebola Response Roadmap intended to guide and coordinate the international response to the EVD outbreak in west Africa.
The Australian Government advises Australians to reconsider their need to travel to Guinea and Sierra Leone, where there is ongoing transmission of EVD. This reflects the seriousness of the outbreak, the challenges in containing it, the limited emergency care options, and travel restrictions which have significantly reduced freedom of movement in the region.
Sporadic demonstrations and local disturbances have been reported across Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone related to the EVD outbreak. There have been violent incidents specifically targeting healthcare workers.
Australians in EVD affected countries may find it difficult and costly to leave. Only a small number of commercial airlines continue to operate out of these countries and some land borders remain closed. Additionally, many countries in Africa, banned entry to travellers who had been in EVD affected countries. These bans may persist.
You should closely monitor the advice provided by local health authorities and the WHO. Maintain strict standards of hygiene and avoid all direct contact with patients with EVD or unknown illnesses. Avoid contact with any objects that could have been contaminated with the body fluids of someone with EVD. Avoid contact with wild animals and do not eat or handle raw or undercooked animal products, such as blood and meat. Know the symptoms of EVD and see a healthcare provider immediately if you feel unwell, or if any EVD symptoms develop.
The standards of local emergency health care in affected countries are well below Australian standards. The current outbreak of EVD has overwhelmed many local health facilities and options for obtaining routine or emergency medical care may be severely limited. You should also be aware that non-EVD related medical evacuations from EVD affected countries will be substantially more complicated than usual due to the restrictions on travel from EVD affected countries.
If you choose to remain in the region for work, you should ensure that your employer has contingency plans for treatment or evacuation should you show symptoms of the disease. If, despite our advice, you are considering undertaking independent travel, you should ensure that your travel insurance will cover healthcare and/or medical evacuation for EVD and any other illnesses.
For details on affected areas, including maps, check the latest situation reports on the WHO website.
Limits to consular assistance: The Australian Government has limited capacity to provide consular assistance in these circumstances. Medical evacuations for any potential EVD patient – and particularly symptomatic EVD patients - will be difficult to conduct. Australia does not have a diplomatic or consular mission in Guinea or Sierra Leone and the Australian High Commission in Accra, Ghana has consular responsibility for these countries. Australian High Commission personnel have deferred non-essential travel to Guinea and Sierra Leone as a result of the EVD outbreak.
Australian embassies and high commissions elsewhere in Africa continue to operate as normal.
Travel restrictions and preventative measures
Travel restrictions are in place in many countries as a result of the EVD outbreak. Authorities in a number of countries have implemented flight bans and a number of carriers have suspended flights into Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Some land borders have been closed.
Health screening is being undertaken at a number of airports worldwide. Travellers from west Africa with fever or EVD-like symptoms may be subject to quarantine or denied entry or exit from certain countries. If you choose to travel to west Africa, you should consider the possible implications of this health screening should you become unwell.
Check the country specific travel advice for your destination, monitor the media closely and before you travel, confirm that borders remain open and check with your carrier for the most up to date information.
Returning to Australia
The Australian Government introduced new border screening processes for travellers returning to Australia from Ebola-affected countries.
For more information, visit the Department of Health website, Department of Agriculture website and the Department of Immigration and Border Protection website.
World Health Organization:
Department of Health:
Department of Immigration and Border Protection:
Department of Agriculture:
Smartraveller travel advice: