Official advice:
High degree of caution

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South Africa overall, exercise a high degree of caution ↓

Pay close attention to your personal security at all times and monitor the media about possible new safety or security risks.

Conditions can change suddenly

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Latest advice, 18 May 2016

Hikers have been attacked on tracks on the slopes of Table Mountain in Cape Town and on the Drakensberg Mountain in the Royal National Park, KwaZulu Natal. We recommend that you hike in groups and be vigilant of your surroundings and circumstances (see Safety and security). The level of this advice has not changed. We continue to advise Australians to exercise a high degree of caution in South Africa.


  • We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in South Africa due to the high level of serious crime. You should pay close attention to your personal security at all times. Monitor the media and other sources about possible new security risks.
  • Demonstrations can quickly turn violent and become dangerous. You should avoid large gatherings and demonstrations. Monitor the media and other local information sources for information about possible demonstrations or public gatherings and avoid these areas.
  • From 1 June 2015, parents and guardians must carry, and produce on request, a full (unabridged) birth certificate as well as a valid travel document (passport) for children under the age of 18. There are additional conditions for minors travelling with only one parent or unaccompanied, see Entry and exit.
  • There has been an increase in the number of robberies at shopping centres in and around Johannesburg and Pretoria. While these have been mostly non-violent, visitors to big malls should remain vigilant at all times.
  • The rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is very high. You should exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
  • See Travel Smart for general advice for all travellers.
  • Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:

Entry and exit

Travelling with children: new entry requirements from 1 June 2015

From 1 June 2015, new immigration regulations apply to the travel of children under the age of 18. Travellers should make themselves aware of all relevant new requirements through the nearest South African embassy or consulate or visit the South African Department of Home Affairs (DHA) website before travelling.

The new regulations stipulate that for all children travelling, a valid travel document (passport) and a full (unabridged) birth certificate must be carried and produced on request. The birth certificate must identify the parents of the child. If an original cannot be produced, a certified copy can be provided, but the certification must be less than three months old. If the birth certificate is not in one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, which includes English, travellers will need to provide an English translation from an accredited translator.

In addition to producing a valid travel document (passport) and full birth certificate, children travelling with only one parent or unaccompanied will also be required to produce a legal document signed by any non-travelling parents, giving approval for the child’s travel. Otherwise, where applicable, they must produce a death certificate of a parent registered on the birth certificate of the child, or a court order granting sole custody. This legal document can be a Statutory Declaration or an Affidavit and must contain full names and passport details of both parents registered on the birth certificate and child(ren), with contact details for any non-travelling parent and accompanied by a certified copy of the birth certificate of the non-travelling parent. The document should also specify the travel destinations of the parent and child(ren). These legal documents or certified copies of these documents cannot be more than 3 months old. If there is only one parent registered on the birth certificate, that person has sole responsibility.

Non-compliance from 1 June 2015 is likely to result in airlines refusing to allow travellers, regardless of nationality or destination, to board flights or being turned back at the border, and possibly fined.

For information on requirements pertaining to other situations such as legal guardianship or unaccompanied travelling minors, please visit the South African Department of Home Affairs (DHA) website before travelling. The Department of Home Affairs has also released a brochure on new immigration regulations detailing the guidelines for children travelling to and from South Africa and a set of Frequently asked questions.

Passports and visas

Australians travelling to South Africa should be aware that significant changes have recently been made to some regulations governing immigration issues. This includes issues with overstaying visas, people wishing to work in or migrate to South Africa, or persons who wish to change their visa status or extend their visa by travelling to a neighbouring country and attempting to return to South Africa. If you have any questions or concerns you should visit the South African Department of Home Affairs (DHA) website.

To enter South Africa you are required to have a passport valid for no less than 30 days after the end of your intended stay, and at least two completely blank pages on which your entry permit can be endorsed. If your passport does not comply with this requirement you will either be prevented from boarding the aircraft at your point of departure, or risk deportation on arrival in South Africa.

We recommend that your passport has at least six months validity from your planned date of return to Australia. Although regulations specify that only 30 days validity is required for travel to South Africa, many immigration officers will insist on six months.

Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) change regularly. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of South Africa for the most up to date information.

South African border authorities do not accept provisional travel documents (one page travel document) as a valid document to enter South Africa. Authorities will, however, accept an emergency passport issued by a Commonwealth country. If you need to travel into South Africa using a travel document other than your passport, please contact the Australian High Commission in Pretoria for more information. Please contact your nearest Australian High Commission or Embassy for assistance with an emergency passport.

It is illegal for an adult who holds South African citizenship to enter or depart South Africa using a non-South African passport. See Laws.

Other entry and exit information

Foreign nationals are permitted to enter South Africa carrying a maximum of R25,000 (local currency) or USD$10,000 (or equivalent foreign currency). Foreigners may be required to declare their currency holdings on arrival or departure.

A valid Yellow Fever Vaccination Certificate is required for all passengers over one year of age who arrive or are transiting through South Africa, from a country or region listed by the World Health Organization as endemic for yellow fever. South African authorities will require all travellers arriving from yellow fever endemic countries to show proof of yellow fever vaccination, including travellers transiting through South Africa. Travellers unable to present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate issued at least 10 days before arrival in South Africa may be refused entry or placed in quarantine. Travellers without a vaccination certificate cannot be vaccinated on arrival.

Safety and security


Crime, including violent crime, is a serious issue in South Africa. Most types of crime are rising.

Muggings, rape, robbery and other forms of theft, often involving weapons, are common. Murders and carjackings involving foreign tourists have also been reported. Travellers have been robbed and assaulted after having their food or drinks spiked.

Criminals operate out of the airport in Johannesburg, following some overseas visitors to their accommodation and robbing them. We advise against accepting unsolicited assistance with transport when arriving at the airport in Johannesburg and against using ATMs at the airport. Assaults and robberies have also taken place on local commuter and metro trains between Johannesburg and Pretoria, as well as on commuter trains in Cape Town.

The South African Police Service does not have “Tourist Police.” Criminals, however, have posed as “Tourist Police” to extort and rob tourists, including by stopping tourists buses to check proof of identity and search luggage.

There has been an increase in the number of robberies at shopping centres in and around Johannesburg and Pretoria. While these have been mostly non-violent, visitors to big malls should remain vigilant at all times.

Crime rates are significantly higher after dark in the centres of major cities and in township areas. The inner suburbs of Johannesburg (Berea and Hillbrow) and the beachfront in Durban are particularly prone to crime and you should avoid travelling to these areas. As crime rates are generally high in the townships, you should only visit township areas with an organised tour run by a reputable company. You should also avoid isolated beaches, lookouts and picnic areas.

Visitors should not expect the same level of service from South African police as they would in Australia.

Due to the very high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, victims of violent crime, especially rape, are strongly encouraged to seek immediate medical assistance.

When travelling by car, you should keep the doors locked, the windows up and valuables out of sight. Thieves posing as vendors or beggars target cars on highway off ramps, stopped at intersections and at traffic lights. Criminals can place debris on roads to stop vehicles. You should not stop to clear debris off the road.

Valuables such as cameras, mobile phones and jewellery should be kept out of sight, and you should exercise vigilance in public places. Bags and backpacks have been stolen in public places including restaurants and bars.

There is a luggage theft problem at Johannesburg and Cape Town airports. Use an airport plastic wrapping service when available and avoid placing electronics, jewellery, cameras and other valuables into checked luggage.

Theft from hotel rooms and guest homes is common, including within game parks. Luggage and valuables should never be left unattended and should be placed in safekeeping facilities.

Hikers have been attacked on tracks on the slopes of Table Mountain in Cape Town and on the Drakensberg Mountain in the Royal National Park, KwaZulu Natal. We recommend that you hike in groups and be vigilant of your surroundings and circumstances.

Commercial fraud scams are common in South Africa. If you receive a scam message, don't be fooled: if it sounds too good to be true, then it probably is. Our information on international scams provides details on common commercial fraud scams. If you are a victim of a scam you should not travel to South Africa to seek restitution given the risk of physical assault from the perpetrators of such crimes. Fraud incidents may be reported to the Commercial Crimes Unit of the South African Police Service in Johannesburg, telephone +27 11 970 5300.

Bogus internet friendship, dating and marriage schemes are operating from some African countries. These scams typically result from connections made through internet dating schemes or chat rooms. Once a virtual friendship develops, the Australian citizen may be asked by their friend or prospective marriage partner to send money to enable travel to Australia. In some cases the relationship is terminated with very little chance that any funds can be recovered. In other cases, foreigners may be lured to Africa to meet their friend or prospective marriage partner and can become victims of crime including kidnapping, assault and robbery.

Civil unrest/political tension

Although the political situation is stable in South Africa, nationwide strikes and demonstrations can occur. Strikes and demonstrations can quickly turn violent and become dangerous. You should avoid large gatherings and demonstrations because of their potential to turn violent. Monitor the media and other local information sources for information about possible demonstrations or public gatherings and avoid these areas.

In July 2015 there were demonstrations and targeted violence between taxi and Uber drivers in Johannesburg, and taxi drivers and bus service operators in Mamelodi, Pretoria. You should avoid any areas where violence is taking place, and monitor local media for updates on the situation.

There has been an increase in the number of attacks directed at refugees or immigrants from other African nations. These attacks have recently been centred in Kwa Mushu and Umlazi in Kwa Zulu Natal, as well as in the central business districts of Durban and Johannesburg. Most attacks are focused in low income neighbourhoods and informal settlements (townships), but some incidents have taken place elsewhere throughout the country. Both targeted victims and bystanders have been killed. Incidents of mob violence have occurred spontaneously and have been difficult for local authorities to control. Monitor the media for reports of such incidents and avoid areas where they are likely to take place.


Australians in South Africa should consider this information when planning their activities and take appropriate steps to enhance their personal security.

Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin.

Money and valuables

There are numerous ATMs in the major cities of South Africa, but fewer in regional and rural areas. ATM scams and credit card fraud are common. You should keep withdrawals from ATMs to a minimum and refuse offers of help at ATMs. Criminals are known to loiter near ATMs waiting for an opportunity to rob people withdrawing cash. Avoid ATMs that open onto the street and instead use ATMs in controlled areas within banks, shops and shopping centres. Secure all ATM and credit card payment slips. Mobile phones and card skimmers have been used to copy credit card details. Keep your credit card in sight at all times when using it.

Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.

Local travel

Rolling blackouts can occur in parts of South Africa, leaving areas without electrical power for several hours at a time. This can lead to lengthy traffic delays if traffic lights are affected.

Although generally South African roads are good, road conditions vary, especially in rural areas. Excessive speed and poor driving skills, especially in difficult conditions, cause a large number of serious accidents in both urban and rural areas. Pedestrians and animals straying onto roads present a common driving hazard, especially at night. For further advice, see our road travel page.


Australians are advised to respect wildlife laws and to maintain a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife, including marine animals and birds. You should only use reputable and professional guides or tour operators and closely follow park regulations and wardens' advice.

You should be cautious about swimming in lakes and rivers because of the risk, in some areas, of water-borne diseases and attacks by wildlife.

Airline safety

The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in South Africa.

Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.


You are subject to the local laws of South Africa, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.

Penalties for drug offences in South Africa are severe and may include lengthy periods of imprisonment. See our Drugs page.

Australians visiting South Africa for the purposes of commissioning commercial surrogacy arrangements should seek legal advice before doing so. You should see our Overseas births, adoptions and surrogacies page for further information.

Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.

If you are detained or arrested, the South African authorities may not automatically notify the Australian Government. As soon as possible, you should request police or prison officials notify the Australian High Commission in the Pretoria.

Information for dual nationals

It is illegal for an adult who holds South African citizenship to enter or depart South Africa using a non-South African passport. Dual nationals travelling on a non-South African passport may be turned away from border points and could be fined or imprisoned for up to 12 months. If you are uncertain whether the South African government will treat you as a South African national, you can contact the South African Department of Home Affairs or the nearest Embassy or Consulate of South Africa for advice.

Our Dual nationals page contains further information.


We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.

It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.

Standard of medical facilities

The standard of medical facilities throughout South Africa varies. Medical facilities are good in urban areas and in the vicinity of some game parks, but may be limited elsewhere. Public and private facilities will require either an up-front deposit for services, a guarantee of payment or confirmation of medical insurance before commencing treatment. In remote areas, air evacuation to a major city is sometimes the only option for medical emergencies. Costs for such an evacuation can exceed $A10,000.

Decompression chambers are located at Kleinmont Hospital in Cape Town, St Augustine's Hospital in Durban, Eugene Marais Hospital in Pretoria and Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg.

Health risks

The rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is very high. You should exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.

Cholera occurs in South Africa, predominately in rural areas, with more serious outbreaks occurring periodically. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, avoid ice cubes, raw and undercooked food, and maintain strict hygiene standards if travelling in rural areas. Tap water is generally safe to drink in the major cities. Further advice on cholera can be found on the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

Malaria is prevalent in some remote areas in the far north and east of South Africa, including Kruger National Park. Specifically, a 90 kilometre strip running along the border with Mozambique and Zimbabwe has been designated as a malaria risk zone, and some adjoining areas experience malaria risk at some times of the year. Other insect-borne diseases (including filariasis) are also prevalent.

We encourage you to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria if travelling to an area where malaria is prevalent. Other precautions including using insect repellent, wearing long, loose fitting, light coloured clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.

Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases (including typhoid, hepatitis, rabies, measles, Rift Valley Fever and drug-resistant tuberculosis) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. Travellers, especially those intending to visit farms and/or game reserves, should avoid contact with animal tissues or blood, drinking milk that has not been pasteurized or homogenized or eating raw meat. Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases, such as bilharzia (schistosomiasis). Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.

In an effort to prevent the spread of Ebola into South Africa, authorities are refusing entry to foreigners arriving from EVD affected countries in west Africa. South African citizens will be allowed to re-enter but will be subject to health screening. For more information on the outbreak and other travel restrictions and preventative measures, see the Ebola outbreak in west Africa travel bulletin.

Where to get help

Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best option may be to contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurance provider in the first instance. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour emergency number.

Should you need to contact the local emergency services, the nationwide emergency number is 10111 and the contact number for ambulance services is 10177.

If the matter relates to complaints about tourism services or products, contact the service provider directly. Information on travel and tourism consumer help is available from South African government consumer assistance website.

The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and can’t do to assist Australians overseas. For consular assistance, see contact details below:

Australian High Commission, Pretoria

292 Orient Street
Pretoria, South Africa
Telephone (27 12) 423 6000
Facsimile (27 12) 342 8442

See the High Commission website for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.

If you are travelling to South Africa, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.

In a consular emergency, if you are unable to contact the above High Commission you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.

Additional information

Natural disasters, severe weather and climate

All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, there is a more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic plate boundaries and ocean trenches. See the Tsunami Awareness page from the Australian Emergency Management Institute.

Additional resources

Warnings by area

Map of South Africa