- We advise you to reconsider your need to travel to Nigeria due to the high threat of terrorist attack, the high threat of kidnapping, the unpredictable security situation, the possibility of violent civil unrest and the high level of violent crime.
- If you do decide to travel to Nigeria, you should exercise extreme caution. The security situation could deteriorate without warning and you could be caught up in violence directed at others.
- Bombings have occurred across Nigeria, including in Abuja. Militant groups have threatened to carry out further attacks against government facilities and personnel, hotels, educational facilities (including international schools), places of worship, media offices, markets and mass transit facilities.
- You should be aware that terrorists may launch attacks during religious festivals and holidays, significant dates and anniversaries. Places of worship have been targeted during the Christmas, Ramadan and Easter periods in recent years.
- We strongly advise you not to travel to Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kano, Kaduna and Yobe states because of the ongoing very high threat of terrorist attack, the threat of kidnapping and the volatile security situation. If you are in these states you should leave immediately.
- We strongly advise you not to travel to the riverine areas (river or swamp areas on or close to the coast) of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta and Rivers states in south-eastern Nigeria because of the very high risk of kidnapping, robbery and other armed attacks especially against foreign oil facilities and personnel.
- If, despite our advice, you decide to travel to these regions, you should ensure you have appropriate close personal protection from a professional security service. The ability of the Australian Government to provide consular services to Australians in these areas may be severely limited.
- We advise you to exercise a high degree of caution in the states of Anambra, Cross Rivers (non-Riverine areas), Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo.
- Given the unpredictable security situation in Nigeria, we strongly recommend that you register your travel and contact details with us, so we can contact you in an emergency.
- See Travel Smart for general advice for all travellers.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
Entry and exit
As visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) can change at short notice, you should contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Nigeria or visit the Nigeria Immigration Service website. Visa on arrival services are generally not available.
HIV/AIDS related entry restrictions may apply to visitors and foreign residents of Nigeria. Nigerian authorities may deny entry to foreigners with HIV/AIDS and may require HIV tests for foreigners intending to marry Nigerian citizens.
In addition to general press accreditation and visas, special accreditation may be required from the Nigerian Ministry of Information for journalists and film makers working in certain parts of the country. Journalists or film makers intending to visit Nigeria should first check with the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Nigeria.
The Nigerian immigration authorities have introduced registration requirements for all resident expatriates who are not nationals of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). If you hold a valid Nigerian Residence Permit (CERPAC or Green Card) you will not require a visa to visit Nigeria. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Nigeria for details.
As the quarantine requirements for yellow fever vaccination differ between countries, we recommend that you check the yellow fever entry requirements for Nigeria and all countries you intend to enter or transit by contacting their foreign missions in Australia. Some airlines may require passengers to present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate before being allowed to board flights out of the country. For more information about yellow fever, including Australian re-entry requirements, see the Department of Health website.
Make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia.
Safety and security
There is a high threat of terrorist attack, kidnapping, violent civil unrest and crime across much of Nigeria. If you do decide to travel to Nigeria, you should exercise extreme caution. The security situation could deteriorate without warning and you could be caught up in violence directed at others.
In recent years Nigeria-based militant groups, including Boko Haram (also known as Islamic State’s West Africa Province) and Ansaru, have carried out large scale and often simultaneous attacks against a range of targets in Nigeria. Attacks, which can include the use of explosive devices (including suicide bombers) and gun fire, have been most frequent in the north eastern states to which we advise against all travel.
However, terrorist attacks can occur anywhere in Nigeria. Locations frequented by foreigners have been attacked in the past and may be targeted in the future. Attacks may be indiscriminate and target public places where large crowds tend to gather.
Australians in Nigeria should exercise heightened vigilance near Nigerian government and security institutions, international organisations, police stations, diplomatic premises, financial institutions, oil facilities and infrastructure as well as public areas including markets, hotels, licensed premises, restaurants, venues broadcasting international sporting events, shopping centres, places of worship, cinemas, educational institutions (including schools, colleges and universities), airports and transport infrastructure, outdoor recreation events, tourist areas and densely populated urban areas.
Security has been tightened at many buildings across Nigeria. A heavy security presence often indicates a location of particularly high risk, but less security does not necessarily mean a lower risk.
You should be aware that terrorists may launch attacks during religious festivals and national holidays, significant dates and anniversaries, especially in northern Nigeria during the Ramadan, Christmas and Easter periods.
Recent attacks occurring outside those areas to which we advise against all travel include:
- On 2 October 2015, four explosions occurred on the outskirts of Abuja, killing 18 and injuring 41 people. A police station and marketplace in the town of Kuje and the same bus station in Nyanya, attacked twice in 2014, were targeted. The attacks were claimed by the Islamic State in West Africa group.
- On 5 July 2015, a twin bomb attack on a mosque and a restaurant in Jos left 44 dead and 65 injured.
- On 10 December 2014, 30 people were killed in an attack on the Terminus market in Jos.
- On 25 June 2014, a large explosion close to Emab Plaza in the Wuse 2 area of Abuja caused more than 20 deaths and a large number of injuries.
- On 25 June 2014, an explosion at a fuel depot in Lagos killed two people.
- On 20 May 2014, twin explosions at the Terminus market in Jos left 118 people dead and scores injured.
- On 14 April 2014, a bomb attack at a bus station in the Nyanya suburb of Abuja reportedly killed 71 people and injured dozens more. A further bombing in the same location on 1 May 2014 killed 19 people and injured many.
You should avoid the affected area in the aftermath of an attack. Secondary attacks have been known to occur in the past targeting those attending to the victims of a primary attack.
Curfews can be imposed, amended and lifted at short notice. You should obey all curfews and monitor the local media for the latest information on possible restrictions on movement and the overall security environment.
Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kano, Kaduna and Yobe states: We strongly advise you not to travel to the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kano, Kaduna, Yobe and Adamawa where Boko Haram is most active. Attacks by Boko Haram aimed at taking territorial control of large parts of north eastern Nigeria have resulted in tens of thousands of deaths, over a thousand kidnappings and the displacement of over two million people in recent years. Military operations continue in parts of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, where areas remain under Boko Haram control.
Recent attacks on public areas including internally displaced persons’ camps, markets, schools, colleges, universities and places of worship have largely been in retaliation to military advances.
Riverine areas ofAkwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta and Rivers states: We advise you not to travel to the riverine areas (i.e. the river and swamp areas on or close to the coast accessible by boat, but not by road) of Bayelsa, Delta, Rivers, Akwa Ibom and Cross River states in south-eastern Nigeria because of the very high risk of kidnapping, robbery and other armed attacks, often directed towards foreign oil facilities and personnel. If you are in these areas, you should consider leaving.
The security situation in the Niger Delta remains fragile. Elements formerly associated with the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) and local criminal militias remain active and continue to threaten oil industry infrastructure and personnel, despite agreed ceasefires and a government amnesty program.
The ability of the Australian Government to provide consular services to Australians in these areas may be severely limited.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin.
Australians in Nigeria should be aware that there is a high threat of kidnapping across the country. Kidnappings involving Westerners have occurred in those areas where we advise Australians not to travel. Westerners have also been kidnapped in other parts of Nigeria, including Abuja and Lagos.
Kidnappings in the south are typically financially motivated, with the victims being held by criminal groups for ransom. Kidnappings in the north are generally politically motivated and undertaken by terrorist groups. In the past victims of kidnapping have been executed. A number of expatriates were kidnapped in Kogi state in the first half of 2015. Several foreigners were reported kidnapped across Nigeria in 2014.
The Australian Government's longstanding policy is that it does not make payments or concessions to kidnappers. The Australian Government considers that paying a ransom increases the risk of further kidnappings, including of other Australians. If you do decide to travel to an area where there is a particular threat of kidnapping, you should seek professional security advice and have effective personal security measures in place. See our Kidnapping threat bulletin.
Civil unrest/political tension
Ongoing risk of political and inter-communal violence across Nigeria: There is an ongoing risk of serious inter-communal violence and unrest in many parts of the country, particularly in the central and northern regions of Nigeria. In recent years, thousands of civilians have been killed in serious violence and unrest related to long-standing tribal, religious and community based grievances in these areas.
You should avoid all protests, rallies and demonstrations as they may turn violent.
A clash between Nigerian security forces and the Shi’ite Islamic Movement of Nigeria group on 12-13 December 2015 in Zaria (Kaduna State) left hundreds dead. Violent protests have occurred in parts of the North in reaction to the arrest of the Movement’s leader.
Since November 2015, a number of large protests have taken place in the south-east of Nigeria, led by the Indigenous Peoples of Biafra group. One such protest in Onitsha (Anambra State) turned violent on 2 December resulting in nine deaths. The group is protesting the arrest of its leader and calling for Biafran independence.
Be alert to changes in the security environment and monitor the local media and other sources of information for developments that may heighten existing inter-communal tensions. While foreigners are generally not targeted, you could be caught up in violence directed at others.
There is a high level of serious and petty crime throughout Nigeria. Kidnapping, violent assault, armed robbery, banditry, home invasion (even in walled and guarded compounds), and carjacking, committed both by individuals and gangs, are prevalent across Nigeria. Petty crime often occurs in crowded public places. Expatriates are frequently targeted due to their perceived level of wealth. You should pay strict attention to your personal safety and security at all times.
Crime increases at night in most areas, particularly in major cities and on highways. Police can be slow to respond to reports of criminal activity, and sometimes do not respond at all. Little or no investigative support is provided to victims.
There is a high incidence of crime on and around the main roads to and from international and domestic airports in Lagos, Abuja and other urban centres. Assaults and robberies are common on public transport and when travelling unaccompanied in taxis. Prearranged collection/drop off at airports and hotels by someone who is known to you or whose identity you can verify will help to minimise the risk. Criminals have been known to pose as police, military personnel and bogus greeters at airports.
Visitors have been abducted and robbed when collected from their hotel by criminals claiming to represent a company with which the visitor has an appointment. Ensure that you can verify and identify who you are meeting and where. Avoid meeting in places on the outskirts of urban centres. You should question any last minute changes in arrangements and should not disclose personal information unnecessarily.
Due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, victims of violent crime, especially rape, are strongly encouraged to seek immediate medical assistance.
Anambra, Cross River (non-riverine areas), Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo states: The security situation in these states is relatively stable and facilities well developed compared to other parts of the country. However, there remain high levels of criminality, including petty crime, assaults and armed attack. Unnecessary travel after dark should be avoided. You should exercise a high degree of caution in these states.
Commercial and internet fraud: Commercial and internet fraud is prevalent and often originates in Nigeria. Scams come in many forms, including romance, friendship, business ventures and employment opportunities. Victims have been defrauded and some who travel to Nigeria have had their lives endangered..
If you are the victim of a scam, we advise you to obtain legal advice and not to travel to Nigeria to seek restitution. You should closely scrutinise all approachesoriginating in Nigeria from people unknown to you. You should not send money to anyone in Nigeria until proper checks are made.
If you are travelling to Nigeria, your relatives and friends may receive bogus phone calls and emails from Nigeria claiming that an Australian traveller is in distress legally, financially or subject to a medical emergency and money is required to assist them. Any requests for money should be treated with caution. If friends and family are unsuccessful in attempts to contact you directly and remain concerned, they should then contact the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s Consular Emergency Centre (see Where to Get Help for contact details). You should be careful about disclosing personal information and disposing of personal documents while in Nigeria.
Some scams may involve requests to transfer money or details though the Australian High Commission in Abuja or involve communication from persons claiming to work at the High Commission itself. Verify any requests of this nature with the High Commission before responding. See Where to Get Help.
See our international scams page for further information.
Money and valuables
Nigeria is predominantly a cash economy. The local currency is the Naira. The acceptance of non-Nigerian debit and credit cards is extremely limited. Use of local cards is increasing in larger cities, however they are rarely accepted elsewhere and there is a high risk of fraud associated with their use. Travellers should exercise caution when visiting banks or using ATMs. You should carefully consider when and where to access internet banking. Facilities for changing travellers' cheques and Australian dollars are limited. US dollars are widely accepted at major hotels, banks and foreign exchange bureaus.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You should keep a photocopy of the ID page and any other important documents, including visas, in a separate location. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
Heightened security arrangements, including authorised and unauthorised police and military roadblocks, vehicle checkpoints, traffic diversions and parking restrictions, are in place throughout Nigeria, particularly in major cities and after dark. You should expect delays as a result of security checks. You may be expected to show identity documents, car registration and ownership papers. Failure to do so may result in having to pay an on-the-spot fine or being subjected to an attempt to extort a small payment of money. Motorbikes are banned in some urban centres. International Driving Permits are not recognised in Nigeria.
Driving in Nigeria can be dangerous, especially at night, due to poorly maintained roads and vehicles, poor local driving habits, unpredictable pedestrians, poor signage, a lack of working traffic lights and inadequate road lighting. You should avoid unnecessary travel after dark. Roadside assistance is poor to non-existent. Nearby crowds have been known to react strongly to people believed to have been at fault in road accidents.
Be vigilant in traffic jams and at traffic lights. Keep car windows up, doors locked and ensure any valuables are kept out of sight.
Nigeria’s borders with Cameroon, Chad and Niger can be closed at short notice.
Fuel shortages are common and motorists should ensure they have adequate fuel for their journey, particularly in the northern regions. Long lines at service stations often disrupt and block traffic in urban centres.
When travelling outside major cities increased personal security measures should be taken. You should travel in convoy where possible, carrying bottled water and multiple forms of communication. Ensure others are aware of your travel plans. Armed robbery of vulnerable travellers has been known to occur on highways, with victims stopped by methods including nails and branches on the road, as well as fake breakdowns and injured persons.
For further advice, see our road travel page.
Public transport is often unsafe due to unqualified drivers, poor vehicle maintenance, high speed driving and overcrowding. Regular and motorcycle taxis are common, however, they can pose a serious danger to passengers, other road users and pedestrians. The quality of rental car services can vary greatly. Major hotels offer more reliable car hire services complete with drivers.
Piracy, kidnapping from and armed robbery of ships at anchor occurs in the coastal areas of the Niger Delta near Lagos and in the Gulf of Guinea. The Nigerian Navy has limited capacity to respond to criminal acts at sea. See our travel bulletin on piracy for more information. The International Maritime Bureau issues piracy reports on its web site.
Airline and air charter safety and maintenance standards vary throughout the world. It is not known whether maintenance procedures and safety standards on aircraft are always properly observed or whether passengers are covered by airline insurance. Concerns over the safety and reliability of some airlines operating domestic flights remain.
Domestic and international flights are often overbooked, delayed or cancelled at short notice. During Harmattan, when dust storms are common, flights can be rerouted due to poor visibility.
The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Nigeria.
Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.
You are subject to the local laws in Nigeria, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
Penalties for drug offences are severe and may include lengthy prison sentences and heavy fines. See our Drugs page.
The death penalty may be imposed for serious crimes such as murder and armed robbery.
Homosexuality is illegal in Nigeria. It is an offence to enter into a same-sex marriage or civil union. Penalties include imprisonment of up to 14 years. It is also an offence to be a witness to or aid in the planning of a same-sex marriage, register, operate or participate in gay clubs, societies or organisations, or make any public show of a same-sex relationship. Penalties for these offences include imprisonment for up to 10 years. Cross-dressing is also prohibited. Twelve northern Nigerian states have adopted Islamic Sharia laws, criminalising sexual activities between persons of the same sex. Adults convicted of engaging in homosexual activity in these states may be subject to the death penalty. See our LGBTI travellers page.
Taking photographs or videotaping in the vicinity of government buildings, military installations, diplomatic premises, airports and bridges is illegal and can lead to confiscation of the camera and/or a fine or detention.
Smoking is banned in public places.
Offences such as stealing and adultery may attract strict penalties in the northern states that impose Sharia Law.
It is illegal to export African art, particularly antiques, from Nigeria without written authorisation from the Department of Antiquities.
It is illegal to import beer, mineral water, soft drinks, sparkling wine, fruits, vegetables, cereals, eggs, textiles, jewellery and precious metals into Nigeria.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Australian authorities are committed to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian child sex tourism and child pornography laws. These laws provide severe penalties of up to 25 years imprisonment for Australians who engage in child sexual exploitation while outside of Australia.
Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa. Travellers should behave and dress conservatively outside large urban areas, especially in the central and northern regions.
Islamic Sharia Law has been introduced in 12 states in the north (Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara) and is being increasingly enforced.
The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is expected to begin in early June 2016. During Ramadan, Australians travelling to Nigeria should take care to respect religious and cultural sensitivities, rules and customs. In particular, people who are not fasting are advised to avoid eating, drinking and smoking in public and in the presence of people who are fasting. For more information, see our Ramadan bulletin.
Information for dual nationals
Australian-Nigerian dual nationals between the ages of 18 and 30 may be required to undertake the National Youth Service Corps program. Contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Nigeria for further information.
See also our Dual nationals page.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
Medical facilities are limited in Nigeria. The standard of heath care can vary in major centres, but is very basic in rural areas. Pharmaceuticals are often in short supply and poor quality substitutes or counterfeit drugs are often used. Upfront payment for services is usually required and the inability to pay will often delay treatment. In the event of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation may be necessary, and costs would be considerable.
Services and accessibility for people with disabilities are not up to the standards you would expect in Australia.
The rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Nigeria is relatively high. You should exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Lassa Fever Outbreak: A recent outbreak of Lassa virus in Nigeria is more widespread than outbreaks in previous years. According to the Nigerian Government, it has resulted in 63 deaths from 212 suspected cases. There is no vaccine or treatment for Lassa Fever. To minimise the risk of infection, travellers should avoid areas that are affected with rodents, keep food in rodent-proof containers, and regularly wash your hands. Further information on Lassa fever can be found on the World Health Organization (WHO) website.
Nigeria is listed by the WHO as endemic for yellow fever. Yellow fever is a potentially fatal viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, which is preventable by vaccination. We strongly recommend that you are vaccinated against yellow fever before travelling to Nigeria. See the Entry and Exit section for important information about vaccination certificate requirements. For more information about yellow fever, see the Department of Health website.
Malaria and other tropical diseases are common in West African countries, including Nigeria. We encourage you to consider taking prophylaxis against malaria, using insect repellent, wearing long, loose-fitting, light-coloured clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito proof.
Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases (including cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, schitsosomiasis, dengue fever, tuberculosis, lassa fever, rabies, measles and meningitis) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, and avoid ice cubes, avoid eating wild animals and raw and undercooked food. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
Nigeria was removed from the WHO list of polioendemic countries on 25 September 2015 after completing a year with no new cases of Wild Poliovirus (WPV) being reported. The last confirmed case of WPV was diagnosed on 24 July 2014 and it had been prevalent across Northern Nigeria prior to this.
It is recommended that Australians travelling to Nigeria and staying for periods greater than four weeks remain vigilant to the risk posed by polio and are up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations against it, including a booster dose, as per the Australian Immunisation Handbook, prior to departure.
Please see your doctor to discuss your vaccination requirements. Further information is available from the Australian Government Department of Health polio website.
Where to get help
Depending on your enquiry, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour provider, employer or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour emergency number.
If the matter relates to criminal issues, contact the Nigerian police service. The national emergency number in Nigeria is 199.
To complain about tourism services, contact the service provider directly.
The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and cannot do to assist Australians overseas. For consular assistance, contact the Australian High Commission in Abuja:
Australian High Commission, Abuja
5th Floor, Oakland Centre
48 Aguiyi Ironsi Street
Telephone: +234 (0) 9 461 2780
Office mobile: +234 (0) 803 307 3519
Facebook: Australia in Nigeria.
See the High Commission website for information about opening hours.
Australian Consulate, Lagos
8th Floor Union Marble House
1 Alfred Rewane Road (formerly Kingsway), Falomo
Ikoyi Lagos, NIGERIA
Telelphone: +234 (0) 809 990 2207
The Australian Consulate in Lagos, headed by an Honorary Consul, provides limited services. For consular and passport assistance, contact the Australian High Commission in Abuja as detailed above.
The Consulate cannot process visa requests; for all visa enquiries please visit the Visa and Migration website.
If you are travelling to Nigeria, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the High Commission you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305, or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
The rainy season extends from May to October when localised flooding may occur and some roads may become impassable.
The dry season extends from November to April. During this period, central and northern Nigeria may be affected by Harmattan, a seasonal wind which blows a high amount of sand and dust in the air. Visibility may be severely limited.
There are strong ocean currents along the coast of Nigeria. Conditions can change quickly and several drownings occur each year.
If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
For additional general and economic information to assist travelling in this country, see the following links: