- We advise you to exercise normal safety precautions in Mongolia. You should exercise common sense and look out for suspicious behaviour, as you would in Australia. Monitor the media and other sources for changes to local travelling conditions.
- Violent crime occurs in Mongolia and foreigners can be targeted.
- See Travel Smart for general advice for all travellers.
- Be a smart traveller. Before heading overseas:
- organise comprehensive travel insurance and check what circumstances and activities are not covered by your policy
- register your travel and contact details, so we can contact you in an emergency
- subscribe to this travel advice to receive free email updates each time it's reissued
- follow us on Facebook and Twitter.
Entry and exit
A visa is required for all travellers to Mongolia.
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) can change at short notice. Contact the nearest Embassy of Mongolia or visit their website for the most up to date information.
If you intend to visit Mongolia, your passport must be valid for at least six months after the duration of your intended stay. Travellers are also required to provide evidence of a return airfare or onward travel.
Local authorities may require you to have a HIV/AIDS test if you intend to stay in Mongolia for longer than one month. Such tests are also applicable for work visas, and in cases of marriage to a Mongolian national.
Overland entry, other than by train, is not allowed unless special permission is obtained in advance from the Mongolian authorities.
If you are intending to travel to China from Mongolia, you will not be permitted by the Chinese authorities to enter unless you have a valid entry visa for China. If you are intending to enter Mongolia from China and then re-enter China (e.g. transiting Beijing on a return journey) you must have a double or multiple entry visa for China.
Many travellers have reported border and customs difficulties when entering Mongolia from Russia by train. Problems may occur if all goods and cash have not been declared on customs declarations when entering and exiting Russia. There have also been reports of difficulties in obtaining Russian visas in Ulaanbaatar. You should ensure you have all necessary visas for onward travel before arriving in Mongolia.
Concerns about international child abduction have prompted governments, including the Mongolian government, to implement more stringent exit/entry procedures. Adults entering and departing Mongolia in the company of a child other than their own should carry a notarised letter from the legal guardian granting them permission to accompany the child.
You are required to register with the Office of Immigration in Ulaanbaatar if staying in Mongolia for longer than 30 days. Failure to do so may result in a substantial fine. Residents who have registered with the Office of Immigration are required to de-register with the Office before departing Mongolia. Those who do not may not be allowed to exit through Mongolian border controls or may have to pay a substantial fine.
The importation of electrical and some high technology equipment is strictly controlled. This extends to the importation of equipment in accompanied baggage. Certification and approval is required. This does not apply to common items such as laptop computers.
In line with local requirements, make sure your passport has at least six months' validity from your planned date of return to Australia. You should carry copies of a recent passport photo with you in case you need a replacement passport while overseas.
Safety and security
Incidents of violent crime occur in Mongolia with increasing frequency, particularly in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. There have been a number of unprovoked, random assaults on foreigners, including during the day and in busy areas. This includes verbal and physical assaults on foreign men and women seen in the company of local women.
Petty crime such as pickpocketing and bag snatching is prevalent. Thieves typically operate on public transport and in crowded areas in Ulaanbaatar such as Chinggis Khan International Airport, the Gandan Monastery, the State Department Store, the so-called "Black Market" or the Naran Tuul Covered Market, the Central Post Office and the train station. You should exercise caution when using public transport. Travellers have reported being robbed by criminals posing as police officers, particularly in the Sukhbaatar Square area of Ulaanbaatar. Incidents of crime targeting travellers, including sexual assault, are particularly frequent around the festivals Tsaagan Sar (January or February) and Naadam (July) and during the summer tourism season.
Thefts frequently occur on trains travelling between Mongolia and Russia.
Travellers have also been robbed when using unlicensed taxis. You should seek assistance from staff at hotels, hostels, restaurants or places of entertainment to book through a reliable licensed taxi company.
Civil unrest/Political tension
You should exercise caution in areas where there are large crowds and avoid all demonstrations as they may turn violent.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin for more information.
Money and valuables
Some banks in Ulaanbaatar, including the central bank (Mongolbank) and head branches of other commercial banks, may exchange Australian dollars. Check the banks’ websites in advance for details.
The number of ATMs in Ulaanbaatar is limited. Older US currency (prior to 2000) may not be accepted in Mongolia, even by banks. The US dollar, Euro, Russian Rouble and Chinese Yuan are popular currencies, however, these currencies may not be accepted in all establishments. Bank notes of different nominal value are exchanged at different rates, with smaller notes at a lower rate. Most shops, supermarkets and restaurants in Mongolia do not accept credit cards. Outside Ulaanbaatar you should carry local currency.
Your passport is a valuable document that is attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. It should always be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or stolen passport. If your passport is lost or stolen overseas, report it online or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as soon as possible.
You should be aware of attempts to obtain access to your passport by deception. If compelled to handover their passport, travellers should contact the Embassy for advice.
Driving in Mongolia can be hazardous, particularly at night, due to poor visibility, road conditions, vehicle maintenance and local driving practices. There are few sealed roads outside of the capital, Ulaanbaatar. For further advice, see our road travel page.
Dust storms occur during May and June, which may affect visibility, particularly when driving.
GPS, maps, communications equipment such as a satellite phone and emergency medical supplies can assist travellers visiting non-urban areas, where communication and medical facilities are often limited.
Heavy snowfalls in Mongolia can hamper access to many regional areas. Ensure that your itinerary has additional travel time factored in, and your travel insurance policy covers delays and cancellations. Severe weather and snowfall can also restrict medical evacuations from remote locations.
Local travel and bus operators may not carry accident liability insurance. Always use available safety equipment, such as lifejackets or seatbelts, even if the locals don't. If appropriate safety equipment is not available, you should use another provider.
Quarantine restrictions to access some regional districts are occasionally in place for diseases such as avian influenza, foot and mouth disease, and bubonic or pneumonic plague. Restrictions are subject to change and you should seek information from the Mongolian authorities or the nearest Mongolian Embassy or Consulate if you are planning to travel to regional areas.
The Australian Government does not provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See instead the Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in Mongolia.
Please also refer to our general air travel page for information on aviation safety and security.
You are subject to the local laws of Mongolia, including ones that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail. Research laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
You are legally required to carry your passport at all times when travelling in Mongolia and if living in Mongolia, a residency card.
Foreign nationals involved in legal proceedings may be denied permission to leave Mongolia until the issue is resolved. These legal proceedings may include instances where criminal investigations have commenced following commercial disputes.
Penalties for drug offences are severe and include lengthy imprisonment served in local jails. See our Drugs page.
Homosexual acts are not illegal in Mongolia, however you should be aware of local sensitivities. See our LGBTI travellers page.
Some Australian criminal laws, such as those relating to money laundering, bribery of foreign public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, child pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.
Information for dual nationals
Mongolia does not recognise dual nationality. This may limit the ability of the Australian Government to provide consular assistance to Australian/Mongolian dual nationals who are arrested or detained. We recommend you travel on your Australian passport at all times.
Australian/Mongolian dual nationals intending to reside in Mongolia may be required to complete national service obligations. For further information, contact the nearest Embassy or Consulate of Mongolia well in advance of travel.
Our Dual nationals page provides further information.
We strongly recommend that you take out comprehensive travel insurance that will cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Confirm that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away and check what circumstances and activities are not included in your policy. Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for a traveller's medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.
It is important to consider your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to consider having vaccinations before you travel. At least eight weeks before you depart, make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and any implications for your health, particularly if you have an existing medical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health page also provides useful information for travellers on staying healthy.
The standard of medical care and range of familiar medicines available in Mongolia is very limited, particularly outside Ulaanbaatar. You are advised to bring basic medical supplies, including any regular prescription drugs, with you. Doctors and hospitals require cash payment prior to providing services, even for emergency care. In the event of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation can be provided but is expensive and difficult to arrange, and delays may occur while required approvals are obtained. Payment is usually required up-front for a medical evacuation and costs may exceed $60 000.
Water-borne, food-borne and other infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), hepatitis, meningitis, rabies, typhoid and tuberculosis) are prevalent with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. We advise you to boil all drinking water or drink bottled water, and avoid ice cubes and raw and undercooked food. Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has confirmed cases of avian influenza in birds in a number of countries throughout the world, including in Mongolia. For a list of these countries, visit the OIE website. For information on our advice to Australians on how to reduce the risk of infection and on Australian Government precautions see our travel bulletin on avian influenza.
During winter, the air in Ulaanbaatar is some of the most polluted in the world. This is primarily due to the use of coal for heating. Travellers with breathing or other health related issues should plan for this.
You should avoid contact with domestic or stray dogs as they may carry dangerous diseases such as rabies.
Where to get help
Depending on your enquiry, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour emergency number.
For criminal issues, contact the local police. The national emergency number for police is 102. For any medical emergency telephone 103. You should always obtain a police report when reporting a crime.
The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian Government can and cannot do to assist Australians overseas.
You can obtain consular assistance from the Australian Embassy in Mongolia:
Australian Embassy, Ulaanbaatar
4F, Naiman Zovkhis (“Eznis”) Building
21 Seoul Street
Ulaanbaatar 14251, Mongolia
Tel: +976 7013-3001
Fax: +976 7013-3014
If you are travelling to Mongolia, whatever the reason and however long you'll be there, we encourage you to register with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. You can register online or in person at any Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate. The information you provide will help us to contact you in an emergency - whether it is a natural disaster, civil disturbance or a family issue.
In a consular emergency if you are unable to contact the Embassy you can contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.
Natural disasters, severe weather and climate
Climate conditions in Mongolia vary from +35 degrees Celsius in summer to -40 degrees Celsius in winter.
Winter in Mongolia is long (October through to March) and the weather can be severe. Travellers should ensure that they have adequate warm clothing and appropriate footwear. A large number of accidents, including among pedestrians, occurs during winter due to black ice, particularly in urban centres. Snow storms can occur outside of the winter months.
Weather conditions can change quickly, including in summer, heightening the risk of hypothermia.
Earthquakes and natural disasters
Mongolia is subject to earthquakes. The rainy season occurs between July and September when flooding may occur. Forest or grass fires can also be common in the drier months.
If a natural disaster occurs, follow the advice of local authorities.
For other useful information to assist travelling in this country, see: