Exercise a high degree of caution in Nepal. Pay close attention to your personal security at all times. Monitor the media and other sources about new security risks.
- Demonstrations and protests occur in Nepal. Avoid protests and large public gatherings as they can turn violent. Follow the instructions of local authorities. See
Safety and security.
- Earthquakes and tremors are common in Nepal. Major earthquakes can result in deaths, widespread damage and severe disruptions to essential services. Familiarise yourself with earthquake safety procedures. See
- Trekking can be dangerous. Use reputable trekking companies with professional guides. Don't trek alone. See
- The Langtang Valley and Manaslu trekking regions were devastated by avalanches and landslides in major earthquakes in 2015. Additional planning is needed for trekking in these and other affected areas. See
- Landslides can happen throughout the year, particularly during the monsoon season (June to September). Major roads and trekking areas can be affected. See
- See our Travel
smart for general advice for all travellers.
Entry and exit
Visas - entry
You'll need a visa to enter Nepal.
If you're visiting Nepal for tourism, you can get a visa-on-arrival at Kathmandu's Tribhuvan International Airport and at land borders. A single-entry visa can be for 15, 30 or 90 days. At Tribhuvan International Airport, the fee is payable in major currencies. Land borders only accept US dollars. Children under 10 years of age require a visa but aren't charged a fee. More information:
Government of Nepal Department of Immigration
In other circumstances, you'll need to get a visa before you travel.
You may be able to extend your visa by applying to Nepal's
Department of Immigration in Kathmandu. The maximum stay in Nepal on a tourist visa is 150 days per calendar year, regardless of the number of entries made or visa extensions received.
Visa and other entry and exit conditions (such as currency, customs and quarantine regulations) can change at short notice. Contact an
Embassy or Consulate of Nepal for up-to-date information.
Visas - exit
You must have a valid visa in your passport to leave Nepal. If your visa has expired, you'll need to extend it at the
Department of Immigration before you depart. If you overstay your visa, you can be detained or refused permission to leave until a fine is paid. The amount of the fine is based on the number of days you overstayed your visa.
If your passport is lost or stolen in Nepal, you'll need to transfer your visa to your new passport before departing the country. To do this, present to the
Department of Immigration a police report, two current passport size photographs and a letter from the Australian Embassy advising of your lost or stolen passport. Make sure your passport is valid for at least six months from the date you intend to return to Australia.
Your passport is a valuable document and attractive to criminals who may try to use your identity to commit crimes. Always keep it in a safe place.
Be aware of attempts to get access to your passport by deception. If you are forced to hand over your passport, contact the Embassy for advice.
If your passport is lost or stolen, you must notify the Australian Government as soon as possible.
The local currency is the Nepalese Rupee (NPR). Declare all amounts in excess of US$2,000 on arrival. It is illegal to take NPR banknotes out of the country.
You can exchange foreign currency for NPR at commercial banks and exchange bureaux in major centres. Credit cards are accepted at major hotels and commercial establishments. ATMs are not commonly found in remote locations. Make sure you carry sufficient cash to cover your needs.
Safety and security
Civil unrest and political tension
Demonstrations and protests are common. Violent political protests and strikes occur from time to time. Curfews can be enforced in areas affected by protests or throughout Nepal at short notice.
Illegal roadblocks and enforced national or local bandhs (strikes) can occur without notice and continue for lengthy periods. At these times, businesses close and vehicles aren't allowed on the roads. Access to the airport can be disrupted and taxis usually aren't available. Road travel (including by taxi) can be dangerous as protestors may forcibly stop vehicles. Travel services, including to trekking areas and outside of Kathmandu Valley, may also be affected.
Threats have been made against religious organisations in Nepal, including schools.
Small-scale improvised explosive device attacks have occurred in various locations throughout Nepal, particularly during periods of political tension. These incidents usually aren't targeted at foreigners but you could get caught up in violence directed at others.
- Avoid demonstrations, protests and other public gatherings as they could turn violent.
- Monitor the media and local sources for advice of planned and possible unrest. Avoid affected areas.
- If a curfew is imposed, adhere to it and seek advice from your tour company on safety and security issues.
- During bandhs, minimise your movements and exercise a high degree of caution. Make sure you have adequate supplies of essentials, including water, food, batteries, cash and medications.
- Be particularly alert to possible threats when political tensions are high.
- Follow the instructions of local authorities.
Pickpocketing and other petty theft is common, especially at tourist sites, airports, on buses and from hotel rooms. Bag-snatching and "snatch and grab" attacks, where thieves snatch bags and other valuables from pedestrians while riding a motorcycle, occur regularly. Victims are often injured. Police have increased their presence in Thamel and Durbar Marg, popular tourist districts in Kathmandu, in an effort to reduce crime in these areas.
You could also encounter serious crime in Nepal. Tourists have been victims of armed robberies and assaults, including sexual assaults. Victims of sexual assault in popular areas of Kathmandu and Pokhara often had their drink 'spiked' before the assault. Women are at particular risk, especially when alone and at night.
- Carry only what you need. Leave other valuables, including your passport, in a secure location.
- Don't tempt thieves – avoid wearing expensive watches, jewellery and cameras.
- Avoid carrying bags that are easy to snatch.
- Walk on footpaths (where available), away from the curb, with your bag held on the opposite side to the traffic.
- Pay close attention to your personal belongings, particularly in crowded areas.
- Never accept food, drinks, gum or cigarettes from strangers or leave drinks unattended.
- If you aren't sure if a drink is safe, leave it.
- Stick with people you trust at parties and in bars, nightclubs and taxis.
- If you suspect that you or a companion has been the victim of drink spiking, seek urgent medical attention.
- Avoid travelling alone, especially if you're female.
- Never trek alone.
- If you're the victim of attempted fraud, including through charities, report it to local police immediately.
Terrorism is a threat throughout the world. More information:
Terrorist threat worldwide
The monsoon season is from June to September. Travellers should anticipate intermittent travel disruptions and maintain flexible itineraries where possible throughout this time. Road travel can be hazardous, especially in the low-lying Terai (plains) regions, where there is a higher risk of flooding. Mountainous areas including the Kathmandu valley are prone to landslides. Disruption of air travel and airport closures are also possible. You should monitor Nepal weather information for up-to-date information on prevailing conditions and be prepared to adjust travel at short notice.
Travel from Nepal to India
The Indian Government has made changes to tourist visa regulations that may affect travellers to India from Nepal. Visit the Indian Government Ministry of Home Affairs website or contact the nearest
Embassy or Consulate of India for up-to-date information. See the
travel advice for India for more information.
Travel from Nepal to Tibet
Generally, only travellers in organised tour groups are issued visas and permits for the Tibetan region of China. If you're planning travel to Tibet, first check the
travel advice for China and contact an Embassy or Consulate of the People's Republic of China for up-to-date information. If you're in Nepal, contact the
Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Kathmandu.
Tours and adventure activities
The safety standards you might expect of transport and tour operators are not always met, including for adventure activities such as trekking and rafting. Sufficient life jackets and adequate safety equipment may not be provided. Recommended maintenance standards and safety precautions may not be observed.
If you plan to participate in adventure activities, talk to your travel insurer first to check if the activity is covered by your insurance policy. Carefully check the operator's credentials and safety equipment before booking. Don't be afraid to ask about or insist on safety requirements. Always use available safety equipment, even if others don't. If appropriate safety equipment isn't available, use another provider.
Trekking and mountaineering
Trekking Agency Association of Nepal (TAAN) and the
Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) manage a Trekkers' Information Management System (TIMS). All foreign trekkers, including those not travelling with organised groups, must have a valid TIMS card. The TIMS helps authorities locate trekkers in case of emergency. TIMS cards are available through authorised trekking companies, TAAN offices in Kathmandu or Pokhara and the NTB office in Kathmandu.
Special regulations apply to mountaineering expeditions and all expedition members are required to have permits.
Some trekking companies or guides may offer condensed treks to attract travellers with limited time. Shorter treks may not allow you sufficient time to acclimatise to high altitude or may otherwise cause excessive physical strain, leading to significant health problems or death. See
Some trekking routes were badly damaged in the 2015 earthquakes, including in the Langtang Valley and Manaslu trekking regions. Recovery is underway but you'll need to do additional planning for treks in affected areas. Verify your travel plans with your tour company or local authorities.
Before trekking or mountaineering in Nepal:
- make sure you have adequate travel and medical insurance that covers the altitude you'll reach, altitude sickness and emergency evacuation by helicopter or other means – see Health
- research and comply with any regulations that apply to trekking in the area, such as permit or registration requirements - confirm requirements through reputable companies in Nepal or Australia, or through an Embassy or Consulate of Nepal
- research the timeframe needed to safely carry out your trek, especially to areas of high altitude
- engage a reputable trekking company with professional guides - don't trek alone
- check the security situation, route conditions, and likely weather in the area and be ready to adjust your plans – more information (trail conditions):
Himalayan Rescue Association
- advise family or friends about your plans, including approximate time frames and trek route.
Some trekkers have reported being pressured into taking expensive helicopter evacuations at the first mild signs of ill health, without having undergone a proper medical consultation or assessment. In such cases, insurance companies have declined to pay for the evacuation, leaving the trekker to meet the cost. Individuals or agents arranging helicopter evacuations have falsely claimed to have confirmed eligibility with a trekker's insurance company.
- If you become ill while trekking, confirm your insurance company's position on evacuation costs (directly if possible), before you agree to being evacuated by helicopter.
Telecommunications facilities are limited and can be unreliable, particularly outside major cities and towns. Mobile phone coverage doesn't exist in many rural and remote areas.
Electricity supplies can be unreliable, including in Kathmandu and particularly during the winter months and in the lead up to the monsoon season. Shortages of essential supplies (including food, water, fuel, gas and kerosene) can occur with limited notice. Businesses, including hotels and guesthouses, can be affected.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), you're three times more likely to be killed in a motor vehicle accident in Nepal than in Australia. Roads are crowded and poorly maintained. Driving standards are poor and traffic laws are often ignored. Drivers can be aggressive. Road travel is dangerous at night, particularly in rural areas.
Roadworks and other major infrastructure projects can go on for lengthy periods, causing significant delays on major roads within cities and towns, as well as on highways. Road travel can also be disrupted due to demonstrations and bandhs (strikes), often called at short notice.
Foreigners are often assumed to be at fault in car accidents, regardless of the circumstances. Locals may demand financial compensation. Crowds of onlookers can gather quickly following an accident and may turn hostile. Car accidents resulting in injuries often lead to confrontations, including violence against drivers, and road closures.
Major roadworks are ongoing in Kathmandu and on the Mugling-Narayanghat highway, a section of the road between Kathmandu and Chitwan National Park. The highway is closed overnight and travel during the day is affected by heavy traffic and poor road conditions.
- Familiarise yourself with local traffic laws and practices before driving.
- Monitor the media for road closures.
- Drive defensively and legally.
- Keep your car windows and doors closed and locked at all times.
- Don't drink and drive.
- Avoid travel between cities after dark.
- If you're involved in a traffic accident and are concerned for your safety, remain in your locked vehicle and wait for the Traffic Police (phone 103) to arrive.
- Allow additional travel time when travelling through areas affected by roadworks, or consider alternatives.
You'll need a valid international driving permit (IDP) along with your current Australian driver's licence to drive a vehicle. Driving without an IDP could void your travel and vehicle insurance.
Check with your travel insurer whether your policy covers you when using a motorcycle, quad bike or similar vehicle. Your policy may not cover you for accidents that occur while using these vehicles. Wear, and ensure your passenger wears, a correctly fastened and approved helmet.
It's safest to use only registered taxis and authorised limousines, which can be arranged through your hotel or resort. Taxi drivers often refuse to use meters and charge foreigners rates well above the usual meter cost. Fuel shortages can reduce the availability of local taxis and other forms of transport. Negotiate the fare with the driver prior to travel.
Travel on public buses and vans, which are generally overcrowded and poorly maintained, is dangerous. There are frequent accidents with multiple fatalities.
Harassment of females, including of a sexual nature, on public buses is common.
Nepal's only international airport, Tribhuvan International Airport, has a single runway that services both domestic and international flights. Domestic flight cancellations and delays occur frequently, especially during the tourist season when the airport is crowded and during rough weather. This can cause travellers to miss international connections or to be stranded. In the past, tourists have been stranded for up to 10 days in locations such as Lukla, the starting place for treks in the Everest region. Always confirm flights with your airline or tour operator.
In recent years, a number of small passenger aircraft travelling domestically have crashed, with some accidents causing multiple fatalities, including of international travellers.
Due to safety concerns, all airlines certified by Nepali regulatory authorities have been banned from operating in European airspace.
The Australian Government doesn't provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths. See the
Aviation Safety Network website for information on aviation safety in the Nepal.
You're subject to all local laws and penalties, including those that appear harsh by Australian standards. Research local laws before travelling, especially for an extended stay.
If you're arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our
Consular services charter. But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.
In tourist areas throughout Nepal, it's common for foreigners to receive unsolicited offers to buy drugs. Don't accept any offers of drugs. Penalties for drug offences are severe in Nepal. Tourists found in possession of even small quantities could be convicted and imprisoned.
Carrying or using drugs
Commercial surrogacy is illegal in Nepal. In August 2015, the Supreme Court of Nepal ordered an immediate halt to commercial surrogacy services in Nepal.
It's illegal to take photographs or video images of army barracks, check points and military personnel.
Some Australian criminal laws apply overseas. If you commit these offences, you may be prosecuted in Australia. Laws include those relating to:
- bribery of foreign public officials
- child pornography
- child sex tourism
- female genital mutilation
- forced marriage
- money laundering
Staying within the law
Nepal doesn't recognise dual nationality. This may limit our ability to provide consular assistance to Australian-Nepalese dual nationals who are arrested or detained. Travel on your Australian passport at all times.
Dress codes are relaxed in tourist areas of Kathmandu and Pokhara, but more conservative in other parts of the country. Dress modestly. Take care not to offend. If in doubt, seek local advice.
Homosexuality isn't illegal in Nepal and Nepali LGBTI persons actively advocate for their rights. However, Nepal is a conservative and traditional society and incidents of harassment and discrimination against LGBTI travellers have been reported.
Take out comprehensive travel insurance before you depart to cover overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation. Make sure your policy includes adequate coverage for any pre-existing conditions, as well as altitude sickness and medical evacuation.
Remember, regardless of how healthy and fit you are, if you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. The Australian Government will not pay for your medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs. This can be very expensive and cost you many thousands of dollars upfront.
- what circumstances and activities are and are not covered under your policy
- that you are covered for the whole time you will be away.
Physical and mental health
Consider your physical and mental health before travelling, especially if you have an existing medical condition.
- At least eight weeks before you depart, see your doctor or travel clinic for a basic health check-up, and to discuss your travel plans and implications for your health.
- Get vaccinated before you travel.
Not all medications available over the counter or by prescription in Australia are available in other countries. Some may even be considered illegal or a controlled substance, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor.
Before you leave Australia, check if your medication is legal in each country you're travelling to and find out if any quantity restrictions or certification requirements apply. Consult your doctor about alternatives well in advance of travel
Take legal prescription medicine with you so you remain in good health. Carry copies of your prescription and a letter from your doctor stating what the medicine is, how much you'll take and that it's for personal use only.
Air quality in Nepal varies considerably, especially in winter. Some towns, including Kathmandu, experience very high levels of seasonal smog and heavy particulate pollution. Seek medical advice if you're concerned about the effects of air pollution.
Pollution levels in Kathmandu
Travellers who ascend to altitudes greater than 2,500m are at risk of developing altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), particularly if the ascent is rapid. Altitude sickness can be life threatening and can affect anyone, even the physically fit. Those at greater risk include people who have had altitude sickness before, who exercise or drink alcohol before adjusting to the altitude, or who have health problems that affect breathing.
If you plan to travel to altitude, see your doctor for advice specific to you and your situation.
Malaria is a risk in Nepal's Terai (plains) and Hill districts and Chitwan National Park. Other mosquito-borne diseases (including dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis) also occur, including in some areas of Kathmandu.
Protect yourself against mosquito-borne illnesses:
- ensure your accommodation is mosquito proof
- take measures to avoid insect bites, including using insect repellent and wearing long, loose-fitting, light-coloured clothing
- consider taking anti-malaria medication
- get vaccinated against Japanese encephalitis before you travel.
HIV/AIDS is prevalent. Exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to risk of infection.
Other infectious diseases
Water-borne, food-borne, parasitic and other infectious diseases (including typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, swine flu, leptospirosis and rabies) are common, with more serious outbreaks occurring from time to time. Highly contagious eye problems such as conjunctivitis are common after the monsoon season.
- Maintain good personal hygiene, including regular and thorough handwashing.
- Boil all drinking water or drink bottled water.
- Avoid ice cubes.
- Avoid raw and undercooked food.
- Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are suffering from diarrhoea.
If you're bitten by a stray dog, monkey or other mammal:
- immediately wash the wound vigorously with soap and water
- seek urgent medical treatment for potential rabies infection.
Medical facilities in Nepal are very limited, particularly outside Kathmandu. In Kathmandu, treatment at international-standard clinics is expensive and up-front payment for services is generally required.
If you become seriously ill or injured, you'll need to be evacuated to a destination with the appropriate facilities. Medical evacuation can be very expensive.
Nepal experiences earthquakes, landslides, floods and severe weather. Major natural disasters can lead to injuries and deaths, disruptions to transport and essential services, damage to infrastructure, food shortages and health issues.
Be prepared for a major emergency, including by maintaining a functional emergency kit that includes first aid supplies and water treatment or stocks.
If a natural disaster occurs:
- secure your passport in a safe, waterproof location or carry it on you at all times (in a waterproof bag).
- closely monitor local media and other sources such as the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System
- follow the advice of local authorities
- contact friends and family in Australia with regular updates about your welfare and whereabouts
- avoid unnecessary travel to affected regions.
Nepal is in a highly active earthquake region. Earthquakes and tremors are common.
On 25 April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal, causing a large number of fatalities. Extensive damage was sustained to buildings, including in the capital, Kathmandu. Avalanches and landslides occurred in the Solukhumbu (Everest) and Langtang regions. A number of aftershocks over magnitude 5 followed, including another earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015.
More information: Earthquakes
Landslides, floods and avalanches
Landslides and floods resulting in deaths occur regularly in Nepal, especially during the monsoon season (June-September). Major roads and all trekking areas can be affected. Avalanches can occur at any time of year.
Severe weather events, such as storms and blizzards, can occur with little or no warning, particularly in the Himalayas.
Where to get help
Depending on what you need, your best option may be to first contact your family, friends, airline, travel agent, tour operator, employer or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24-hour emergency number.
Emergency phone numbers
- Fire: 101
- Medical emergencies: 100 or go direct to the hospital
- Crime: 100 or visit the nearest police station. Alternatively, call the Tourist Police.
- Tourist Police: 1144 (headquarters); +977 1 470 0750 (Kathmandu) or +977 6 146 2761 (Pokhara)
Always get a police report when reporting a crime.
Tourism services and products
To complain about tourism services or products, contact your service provider directly. You can also lodge a complaint with the
Nepal Tourism Board.
Read the Consular services charter for what the Australian Government can and can't do to help you overseas. For consular assistance, contact the Australian Embassy in Kathmandu.
Australian Embassy, Kathmandu
300 metres north of Narayan Gopal Chowk
Telephone: (+977 1) 437 1678
Facsimile: (+977 1) 437 1533
Embassy website for information about opening hours and temporary closures that may affect service provision.
If you're unable to contact the Embassy in a consular emergency, contact the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.